Andover Historic Preservation


Glossary

Balustrade
A railing system with upper and lower horizontal rails and short vertical elements (balusters)
Band course
A projecting, horizontal element separating parts of a wall surface, especially in masonry construction
Bay
A regularly repeated unit of space on the façade of a building, often formed or suggested by dimensions of the structural framework
Brick corbel
A series of masonry courses, each stepping progressively outward from the face of a building to create a decorative element
Casing
The flat wood trim on the surface of the wall surrounding a window or door, often with bands of molding around the perimeter
Corner board
A flat trim board applied to an exterior corner of a wood-frame building
Cornice
Molded projections extending across the top of a wall, or forming the top element of a door or window frame
Cresting
A horizontal ornamental element at the top of a parapet or roof ridge, usually made of metal or occasionally of terra cotta
Curtilage
A court, courtyard, a piece of ground included within a fence surrounding a dwelling house
Dormer
A small structure that projects from a sloping roof, with a window in the vertical face
Eave
The projection of a roof beyond the wall below; most often used to refer to the edge or underside of a roof
End gable form
A gable-roofed building with its primary façade on a short end wall usually facing the street (the roof ridge is perpendicular to the street)
Entablature
A series of horizontal elements at the top of a wall; in classical architecture consisting of an architrave, frieze, and cornice
Façade
Any of the exterior faces of a building; often refers to the architectural front, which is distinguished from other walls by its degree of elaboration or the location of the principal entrance
Fascia
A flat, horizontal band on a wall surface; often a plain element with little molding at the top edge of a wall
Fanlight
A semicircular window over a door
Gable end
A short end wall of a gable-roofed building, perpendicular to the ridge beam, which has a triangular shape at the top portion. An end gable structure is set with this wall facing the street; a side gable structure is set with this wall set perpendicular to the street
Gable return
The bottom corner of a raking cornice molding that turns inward towards the center of the wall in a horizontal direction
Half-timbering
A medieval building construction technique in which an exposed timber frame is infilled with plaster or brick, so that the timbers form a geometric pattern on the exterior
Hip roof
A roof that slopes inward from all four exterior walls, forming a pyramid
Hood
A projecting element that covers a wall opening such as a window or door; often supported by brackets at each end
Joint
The space between masonry units in a wall, usually filled with mortar to attach the units
Light
An individual pane of glass in a window or door
Lintel
A horizontal structural element in a wall that spans a window or door opening; in a masonry building, often distinguished by a contrasting material
Mansard
A roof with two slopes on each side, the lower slope typically being almost vertical
Menage
A dwelling house
Messuage
A dwelling house with adjacent buildings and cartilage and the adjoining lands used in connection with the household
Monitor
A raised section at the top of a roof, usually with glazing in its vertical sides to allow illumination of the center of a building
Muntin
A secondary framing member that holds individual panes of glass within a window or glazed door
Palladian window
A three-part window unit, with a wider center window usually having an arched top, flanked by a narrower rectangular window on each side
Parapet
The part of a vertical wall that extends above the adjacent roof
Pediment
The triangular gable end of a building, framed by a horizontal cornice and the raking (diagonal) cornices of the roof eaves, or a similar form used above a door or window
Pilaster
A vertical projection on a wall, usually rectangular in cross-section and often with a capital and base, that appears to be supporting building elements
Pitch
The slope of a building element in relation to the horizontal, especially in a roof
Pointing
The material with which joints in a masonry wall are filled. Also the process of placing mortar in a masonry joint as the units are laid up; re-pointing refers to removing an outer portion of deteriorated mortar and re-filling the joint with new mortar
Rake board, raking cornice, raking course, raking molding
A diagonal trim element following the slope of a gable or roof, where it meets an exterior wall
Sash
The perimeter frame of a window, including the horizontal rails and vertical stiles, that holds the glass panes; it may be movable or fixed
Set back
On a parcel of land, the distance between the street and the front of a building, or between a building and the side or back property lines. On a building, recessing elements (such as upper stories) back from the main wall plane
Side gable form
A gable-roofed building with its short end walls perpendicular to the street (the roof ridge is parallel to the street) and its primary façade on a long wall
Sidelight
A narrow rectangular window to the side of a door or wider window
Soffit
The exposed undersurface of an overhead element, such as an arch or roof eave
Transom
A window above a doorway, separated by a horizontal crossbar, or a secondary window similarly set above a larger window
True divided-light sash
A window with individual panes of glass separated by muntins


 
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